Management Science Review

Every soldier injured on the battlefield must be given the best possible chance to survive and to recover. This requires the provision of timely medical treatment and en-route care to injured soldiers and a prompt evacuation to properly equipped medical treatment facilities (MTF). The need to improve military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) systems is constantly reiterated by the popular press and is a key objective for the US Army. The US Defense Health Board has recommended extensive improvements to platform, provider skill level and oversight, response time, and quality assurance of MEDEVAC missions. A review of the MEDEVAC operations in Afghanistan revealed that 25% of deaths on the battlefield were preventable and called for improvement of MEDEVAC practices.

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Technology has enabled firms to provide customers with touchpoints across different channels. Omni-channel retail is a prominent example: retailers offer their goods in brick and mortar stores as well as through their websites and mobile applications. In their article, Bavafa, Hitt, and Terwiesch, focus on omni-channel services in health care. During the past decade, there has been an expansion of one channel in particular: e-visits or secure-messaging, which allows patients to communicate remotely with clinicians.

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Triage and prioritization help allocate limited resources to patients who need it most in an effort to save as many lives as possible. Thus, it has become a common practice in both daily emergency department operations and mass-casualty events. However, the information that is required to prioritize patients, such as urgency and resource requirements among others, may not be immediately available. Thus, decision makers have to spend some time on triage and collect such information (perfect or imperfect), which results in delay in the actual treatment of patients.

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Participation on the digital platforms which comprise the so-called gig-economy has grown exponentially over the last several years. Yet, researchers have been relatively quiet about how these platforms are beginning to affect labor markets. In a recently published manuscript, “Can You Gig It? An Empirical Examination of the Gig-economy and Entrepreneurial Activity,” Gordon Burtch, Seth Carnahan, and Brad Greenwood begin to do exactly that. In the work, the three explore the relationship between the entry of Uber’s discount ridesharing service, Uber X (the most significant gig-economy platform), into a local area and rates of entrepreneurship. They argue that a current or potential entrepreneur might respond to Uber X’s entry in one of two ways.

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Is it necessary to suffer to produce good art? Many artists may believe this is the case, and many cite the death of Picasso’s good friend, Carlos Casagemas, as launching Picasso into his very innovative and important blue period. But, many psychologists disagree with the idea that suffering is good for creativity.

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The use of workplace wellness programs—a coordinated set of policies enacted by an employer designed to improve employee health—has exploded in recent years, with nearly 90% of U.S. employers now offering such programs. The evidence on the efficacy of such programs, however, is limited. A recent large-sample randomized trial of a wellness program aimed at thousands of employees in the University of Illinois system found no reduction in health care spending or employee absenteeism, leading Bloomberg News to declare in a headline that “Workplace Programs Really Don’t Work.” Reviewing the evidence on the efficacy of wellness programs, the Wall Street Journal wrote that, “employers are stymied by the difficulties of measuring the financial and health impact of wellness programs.”

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The expected number of fatalities is perhaps the most common measure to assess social risks. However, the expectation operation does not account for important dimensions such as the number of people at risk or the likelihood of many people dying together. Alternative criteria for managing public risks have therefore emerged. These seek to incorporate society’s anxiety to avoid a bunching of fatalities and its reluctance to accept risks, which are unequally distributed across people.

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A buyer-supplier relationship is vital in every aspect of business. While many buyers expect that these relationships are ruled by contracts and written agreements, they also know that it is impossible to describe every important aspect of a transaction in a contract. For example, even the desired quality or service level is very difficult to specify perfectly, especially when the buyer cannot monitor its supplier’s every action. Similarly, the details of each firm’s expected response to unforeseen events or natural disasters are difficult to write precisely. In these cases, firms can significantly benefit from finding and encouraging suppliers that are willing to provide quality and responsiveness beyond the letter of a contract. The resulting relationships—based on trust and trustworthiness—can help buyers mitigate their risk and increase collaboration in cases where quality, or another performance factor, is not contractible.

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Recent years have shown several remarkable instances of unethical behavior that have caused public scandals. Corporations and organizations have been accused of engaging in dishonest business practices such as questionable accounting methods, corruption and fraud. Such examples of dishonest behaviors in pursuit of competitive or personal advantage have filled headlines in the media and in many instances, fraudulent behavior seemed to have emerged more easily within groups than on the individual level. Do groups have indeed the tendency to behave more dishonestly than individuals, and if so, why?

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Women are significantly under-represented in leadership positions and to reduce such gender differences, gender quotas are increasingly applied. However, there is limited and contradictory evidence on the impact of gender quotas. On the one hand, gender quotas have led to an increase in female representation in leadership positions. On the other hand, there is evidence suggesting that women who are appointed under gender quotas are regarded as less legitimate, less qualified, and less competent in their roles and may fuel conflict among women.

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