Management Science Review

The expected number of fatalities is perhaps the most common measure to assess social risks. However, the expectation operation does not account for important dimensions such as the number of people at risk or the likelihood of many people dying together. Alternative criteria for managing public risks have therefore emerged. These seek to incorporate society’s anxiety to avoid a bunching of fatalities and its reluctance to accept risks, which are unequally distributed across people.

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A buyer-supplier relationship is vital in every aspect of business. While many buyers expect that these relationships are ruled by contracts and written agreements, they also know that it is impossible to describe every important aspect of a transaction in a contract. For example, even the desired quality or service level is very difficult to specify perfectly, especially when the buyer cannot monitor its supplier’s every action. Similarly, the details of each firm’s expected response to unforeseen events or natural disasters are difficult to write precisely. In these cases, firms can significantly benefit from finding and encouraging suppliers that are willing to provide quality and responsiveness beyond the letter of a contract. The resulting relationships—based on trust and trustworthiness—can help buyers mitigate their risk and increase collaboration in cases where quality, or another performance factor, is not contractible.

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Recent years have shown several remarkable instances of unethical behavior that have caused public scandals. Corporations and organizations have been accused of engaging in dishonest business practices such as questionable accounting methods, corruption and fraud. Such examples of dishonest behaviors in pursuit of competitive or personal advantage have filled headlines in the media and in many instances, fraudulent behavior seemed to have emerged more easily within groups than on the individual level. Do groups have indeed the tendency to behave more dishonestly than individuals, and if so, why?

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Women are significantly under-represented in leadership positions and to reduce such gender differences, gender quotas are increasingly applied. However, there is limited and contradictory evidence on the impact of gender quotas. On the one hand, gender quotas have led to an increase in female representation in leadership positions. On the other hand, there is evidence suggesting that women who are appointed under gender quotas are regarded as less legitimate, less qualified, and less competent in their roles and may fuel conflict among women.

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Today’s consumer leverages different channels to acquire information before making her purchase decision. This leads to showrooming behavior when a consumer acquires product information involving “touch-and-feel” attributes at the physical store, and then checks price information at competing online retailers. As a result, if the prices at the online retailer are lower, a store may get foot traffic that may not necessarily translate into purchases.

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Therapies for a number of chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis are only effective in a subset of “responders” in the population, and biomarkers that accurately assess a priori whether a given patient will be a responder are often not available. In such cases, the main way to evaluate the efficacy of a disease modifying therapy (DMT) is by initiating treatment and then continuously monitoring the patient through self-reported surveys, periodic check-ups, or more in-depth scans and evaluations.

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Interruptions are common in the workplace. From equipment breakdowns to unscheduled meetings and communication requests, unplanned breaks from a smooth and continuous production often trigger losses in work hours and reductions in productivity. Nowadays, with firms adopting modern organizational and communication technologies such as open-plan offices, e-mail, and instant messaging, managing interruptions has become increasingly important and challenging for businesses and their workers.

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In the last few years, businesses are increasingly using online labor marketplaces to contract with freelancers. Consequently, these marketplaces are growing at an unprecedented rate, as seen in the explosion of freelancers in the US and around the world. By 2020, it is estimated that a full 40% of the workforce in US will be made up of freelancers.

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Multitasking is a common practice to increase the output in the workplace. When there exist idle times during the execution of a task, multitasking (i.e., switching between different tasks) helps employees better utilize their work times and improve their productivity in terms of throughput. Yet, in recent years, many service firms have come to realize that the productivity of an employee is much more than his/her mere “throughput”. Quality of outcome and end-user satisfaction are equally important performance metrics that can be affected by, but rarely studied from the lens of multitasking. Despite the abundance of anecdotal evidence, there has not been systematic research that questioned whether customers get bothered by multitasking employees in a service environment and if so, how sensitive they are to such actions.

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Fast rising health care costs continues to be one of the important policy issues that has major societal costs in the United States. Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption is considered as a policy tool to reduce health care costs while simultaneously improving the quality of care; and EHRs are being promoted with substantial public subsidies. The underlying belief behind these policies is that EHR adoption would lower the health care costs and improve the quality of care via improving clinical decisions and care coordination, and reducing medical errors, unnecessary re-admissions, and over-testing. However, EHR systems are also expensive to acquire, implement and maintain, and several hospitals that adopted EHR systems have experienced an increase in their operating costs.

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